University of Cincinnati Law Professor Sean Mangan does not hate many things, but ‘and/or’ has to be first on the list – along with whomever might be playing his Irish that weekend. I had the pleasure of taking multiple drafting classes with him several years ago, but I honestly never quite understood the depth of his anger towards the use of ‘and/or’ (along with “thereof”, “henceforth”, “hereto”, and the like). However, as it turns out, he is in very good company, as many judges and legal drafters seem to have some unresolved anger issues with this phrase as well.

The generally agreed upon meaning of “X and/or Y” is “X or Y or both”. That is a fine definition, but the problem is that the lack of clarity on the surface of the expression can allow opposing counsel to deliberately misinterpret whatever provision is in question in their client’s favor. If “X or Y or both” is what you mean, then just write what you mean! Take a look at how judges and style guides view the use of ‘and/or’:
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Relationships matter.

Seems obvious, but not always understood. However, this past week Scott Kadish, Alex Conn and I experienced firsthand the importance of this simple principle.

Last week we attended the ICSC U.S. Shopping Center Law Conference in San Antonio, Texas. For 4 days we attended educational sessions (we actually led the discussion in 2 of those), visited with clients and colleagues, renewed friendships and made new ones. There were about 1,350 attendees at this conference, the programming was terrific, and opportunities were abundant.

Clients and lawyers with whom we may only have an electronic connection for most of the year were suddenly and delightfully in the same physical place as us for 4 or 5 days. It was during this face-to-face time that I realized how important it is to actually know our clients and the folks who sit across the table from me the rest of the year.
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